Comparison of 1948 Civil Rights Party Platform Planks
1948 Democratic Party Civil Rights Plank (original proposal)
"The Democratic party is responsible for the great civil rights gains made in recent years in eliminating unfair and illegal discrimination based on race, creed, or color. “The Democratic Party commits itself to continuing its efforts to eradicate all racial, religious, and economic discrimination. We again state our belief that racial and religious minorities must have the right to live, the right to work, the right to vote, the full and equal protection of the law, on a basis of equality with all citizens as guaranteed by the Constitution. We again call upon the Congress to exert its full authority to the limit of its constitutional powers to assure and protect these rights.”
1948 Democratic Party Civil Rights Plank (Southern alternative; defeated 925-309)
The Democratic Party stands for the principles that the Constitution contemplated and established a union of indestructible sovereign states and that under the Constitution the general Federal Government and the separate States have their separate fields of power and permitted activities. Traditionally it has been, and it remains a part of the faith of the Democratic Party that the Federal Government shall not encroach upon the reserved powers of the States by centralization of government or otherwise. Within the reserve powers of the States, to be exercised subject to the limitations imposed by the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution on the manner of their exercise, is the power to regulate and control local affairs and act in the exercise of the police power.
1948 Democratic Civil Rights Plank (Hubert Humphrey proposal; adopted 651 ½ - 582 ½)
The Democratic Party is responsible for the great civil rights gains made in recent years in eliminating unfair and illegal discrimination based on race, creed or color, The Democratic Party commits itself to continuing its efforts to eradicate all racial, religious and economic discrimination. We again state our belief that racial and religious minorities must have the right to live, the right to work, the right to vote, the full and equal protection of the laws, on a basis of equality with all citizens as guaranteed by the Constitution. We highly commend President Harry S. Truman for his courageous stand on the issue of civil rights. We call upon the Congress to support our President in guaranteeing these basic and fundamental American Principles: (1) the right of full and equal political participation; (2) the right to equal opportunity of employment; (3) the right of security of person; (4) and the right of equal treatment in the service and defense of our nation.
1948 Progressive Party Civil Rights Plank
End Discrimination The Progressive Party condemns segregation and discrimination in all its forms and in all places. We demand full equality for the Negro people, the Jewish people, Spanish-speaking Americans, Italian Americans, Japanese Americans, and all Other nationality groups. We call for a Presidential proclamation ending segregation and all forms of discrimination in the armed services and Federal employment. We demand Federal anti-lynch, anti-discrimination, and fair-employment-practices legislation, and legislation abolishing segregation in interstate travel. We call for immediate passage of anti-poll tax legislation, enactment of a universal suffrage law to permit all citizens to vote in Federal elections, and the full use of Federal enforcement powers to assure free exercise of the right to franchise. We call for a Civil Rights Act for the District of Columbia to eliminate racial segregation and discrimination in the nation's capital. We demand the ending of segregation and discrimination in the Panama Canal Zone and all territories, possessions and trusteeships. We demand that Indians, the earliest Americans, be given full citizenship rights without loss of reservation rights and be permitted to administer their own affairs. We will develop special programs to raise the low standards of health, housing, and educational facilities for Negroes, Indians and nationality groups, and will deny Federal funds to any state or local authority which withholds opportunities or benefits for reasons of race, creed, color, sex or national origin. We will initiate a Federal program of education, in cooperation with state, local, and private agencies to combat racial and religious prejudice. We support the enactment of legislation making it a Federal crime to disseminate anti-Semitic, anti-Negro, and all racist propaganda by mail, radio, motion picture or other means of communication. We call for a Constitutional amendment which will effectively prohibit every form of discrimination against women—economic, educational, legal, and political. We pledge to respect the freedom of conscience of sincere conscientious objectors to war. We demand amnesty for conscientious objectors imprisoned in World War II.
1948 Republican Civil Rights Plank:
Lynching or any other form of mob violence anywhere is a disgrace to any civilized state, and we favor the prompt enactment of legislation to end this infamy. One of the basic principles of this Republic is the equality of all individuals in their right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. This principle is enunciated in the Declaration of Independence and embodied in the Constitution of the United States; it was vindicated on the field of battle and became the cornerstone of this Republic. This right of equal opportunity to work and to advance in life should never be limited in any individual because of race, religion, color, or country of origin. We favor the enactment and just enforcement of such Federal legislation as may be necessary to maintain this right at all times in every part of this Republic. We favor the abolition of the poll tax as a requisite to voting. We are opposed to the idea of racial segregation in the armed services of the United States.
1948 Socialist Party Civil Rights Plank
7. Establish Racial Equality Democracy cannot tolerate two classes of citizenship. Complete political economic and social equality, regardless of race, religion or national origin must be established. a. Segregation must be abolished in the armed forces, in all public institutions and in housing. b. Legislation for a Fair Employment Practices Committee, long overdue, should be passed. c. Anti-lynching legislation must be enacted to wipe out the worst blot on the American scene. d. Naturalization rights should be granted to Japanese immigrants who have demonstrated their loyalty, and indemnification should be given to Japanese immigrants and their American descend¬ants who suffered property losses because of government policy during World War II. e. All forms of discriminating barriers against immigration on grounds of race, color or national origin must be abolished. f. Guarantee the right to vote to many citizens now robbed of suffrage. The 14th Amendment of the Constitution, depriving states of representation in Congress in proportion to the number of citizens deprived of the right to vote by virtue of race, color, or previous condition of servitude, should be promptly enforced.
1948 Socialist Workers Party Civil Rights Plank
4. rights of minority croups Smash the Jim Crow system! Full economic, political and social equality for the Negro people and other minorities! Pass and enforce legislation to punish lynching, abolish the poll tax, establish a Fair Employment Practices Committee with power to root out discriminatory practices, eliminate segregation wherever it exists! Combat anti-Semitism in all its forms! Wipe out discriminatory immigration policies and open the doors of the U.S. to refugees! Unite the workers of all races for the common struggle against their exploiters!
1948 States Rights Democratic Party Civil Rights Plank
We stand for the segregation of the races and the racial integrity of each race; the constitutional right to choose one's associates; to accept private employment without governmental interference, and to earn one's living in any lawful way. We oppose the elimination of segregation, the repeal of miscegenation statutes, the control of private employment by Federal bureaucrats called for by the misnamed civil rights program. We favor home-rule, local self-government and a minimum interference with individual rights. - 5 - We oppose and condemn the action of the Democratic Convention in sponsoring a civil rights program calling for the elimination of segregation, social equality by Federal fiat, regulations of private employment practices, voting, and local law enforcement. - 6 - We affirm that the effective enforcement of such a program would be utterly destructive of the social, economic and political life of the Southern people, and of other localities in which there may be differences in race, creed or national origin in appreciable numbers.